Combining Code and Writing

Combining code and the document that you’re writing is called “literate programming”. It’s one of the best practices associated with reproducible research, which is a hot topic in political science and other disciplines. This post isn’t about why you should do this, it’s just about how to do it.

I’m going to talk about how to combine R code with markdown via rmarkdown and LaTeX via knitr. There are other ways of doing this (such as org-mode in emacs), so this isn’t supposed to be a comprehensive guide to all of the ways of doing this. I’m focusing on LaTeX because that’s probably the most popular way of writing prose in academia, and markdown is easy to cover as well. If you need to include languages other than R in your analysis, you should consider org-mode with emacs.

Knitr is just one way of combining R code with prose. There is another way of doing this (with Sweave), but knitr is much easier and includes some features that Sweave is lacking, so I focus on knitr here.

LaTeX and knitr

The usual file extension for these kinds of files is .Rnw. Knitr is smart enough that you don’t actually have to do much; Just type up the LaTeX document like normal. Whenever you want to use R code, you can simply put:


Everything between <<>>= and @ will be fed to R. You can label the chunk by giving it a name. This helps if there are any compile errors. You can also set up options for each chunk individually. So if we have a chunk that looks like this:

<<mean-of-cars-by-cyl, echo=FALSE>>=
mtcars %>%
  group_by(cyl) %>%

then knitr will name the chunk “mean-of-cars-by-cyl” and output the expression to the PDF file without including the code we used to get those values (we’ll cover knitr options below).

We can also evaluate R code inline using \Sexpr{}. That’s short for S-expression. Remember that R is built on top of S, so that’s where the terminology comes from. So if we wanted to show the mean of the numbers 1-10, we could simply write \Sexp{mean(1:10)}.

Compiling .Rnw

So now we have a great .Rnw file that has all of our code and text in the same place. How do we get a .tex file or a PDF? The easiest way is to open up R, and run knitr::knit("my-doc-title.Rnw"). This will produce a .tex file which you can then process to create a PDF in the usual way (latexmk, pdflatex, or whatever).


Rmarkdown is an invention by RStudio that enables us to write in pandoc-flavored markdown and include R code to be evaluated. We can then convert the rmarkdown file (usually with the .Rmd extension) to any filetype that rmarkdown supports. Since rmarkdown relies on pandoc to do the heavy lifting of the file conversions, we can actually translate between quite a few different filetypes. Most useful for us are PDFs, HTML, and Word documents.

In rmarkdown, we can do R code in display mode with tick marks. So if we wanted the rmarkdown version of the code above, it would look like this:

```{r, echo=FALSE}
mtcars %>%
  group_by(cyl) %>%

Compiling .Rmd

Once you’ve finished writing, you can compile your .Rmd document pretty easily. Open up R and type rmarkdown::render("my-doc-title.Rmd") and that will output whatever filetype you have specified in the YAML frontmatter. If you’ve specified multiple filetypes (PDF and HTML, for example) in the YAML metadata, you’ll need to tell R to produce all the filetypes: rmarkdown::render("my-doc-title.Rmd", "all").

knitr options

There are a lot of options that you can feed to knitr, which you can review here. Some of the most important options are

  • eval: This tells knitr whether it should evaluate the chunk or not. It’s default is TRUE, set to FALSE if you don’t want the chunk evaluated
  • echo: Should the source code be included in the output document? Default is TRUE, but for academic articles you probably want to overwrite this and set it to FALSE.
  • results: How should results be put into the document? The default here is markup, which results in a special LaTeX environment. Another option I find myself using is asis. For example, if you’re using the xtable package to create a table, you need to change results="asis" so that the LaTeX gets passed through properly.
  • warning: This defaults to TRUE, which prints warnings in your document. Great for catching errors, but ugly. Turn it off and it prints the warnings in the R console instead.