Combining code and the document that you’re writing is called “literate programming”. It’s one of the best practices associated with reproducible research, which is a hot topic in political science and other disciplines. This post isn’t about why you should do this, it’s just about how to do it.
I’m going to talk about how to combine R code with markdown via rmarkdown and LaTeX via knitr. There are other ways of doing this (such as org-mode in emacs), so this isn’t supposed to be a comprehensive guide to all of the ways of doing this.
Having a super powerful text editor can make your life much easier. There are quite a few out there, but there’s only that can do it all: Emacs.
In this post, I’ll outline how to get started with emacs. There are plenty of tutorials out there, but I’d say that the best way to learn is just to jump in. Thus, I will not spend a whole lot of time describing what M-x does (the answer is everything).